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    蓼莪

    《蓼莪》

    先秦·佚名

    蓼蓼者莪,匪莪伊蒿。哀哀父母,生我劬勞。

    蓼蓼者莪,匪莪伊蔚。哀哀父母,生我勞瘁。

    瓶之罄矣,維罍之恥。鮮民之生,不如死之久矣。無父何怙?無母何恃?出則銜恤,入則靡至。

    父兮生我,母兮鞠我。撫我畜我,長我育我,顧我復我,出入腹我。欲報之德。昊天罔極!

    南山烈烈,飄風發發。民莫不穀,我獨何害!南山律律,飄風弗弗。民莫不穀,我獨不卒!


    譯文及注釋
    譯文
    看那莪蒿長得高,卻非莪蒿是散蒿。可憐我的爹與媽,撫養我大太辛勞!
    看那莪蒿相依偎,卻非莪蒿只是蔚。可憐我的爹與媽,撫養我大太勞累!
    瓶兒空了底,裝水壇子真羞恥。孤獨活著沒意思,不如早點就去死。沒有親爹何所靠?沒有親媽何所恃?出門行走心含悲,入門茫然不知止。
    爹爹呀你生下我,媽媽呀你喂養我。你們護我疼愛我,養我長大培育我,想我不愿離開我,出入家門懷抱我。想報爹媽大恩德,老天降禍難預測!
    南山高峻難逾越,飆凄厲令人怯。大家沒有不幸事,獨我為何遭此劫?南高峻難邁過,飆風凄厲人哆嗦。大家沒有不幸事,不能終養獨是我!
    注釋
    ⑴蓼(lù)蓼:長又大的樣子。莪(é):一種,即莪蒿。李時珍《本草綱目》:“莪抱根叢生,俗謂之抱娘蒿。”
    ⑵匪:同“非”。伊:是。
    ⑶劬(qú)勞:與下章“勞瘁”皆勞累之意。
    ⑷蔚(wèi):一種草,即牡蒿。
    ⑸瓶:汲水器具。罄(qìng):盡。
    ⑹罍(léi):盛水器具。
    ⑺鮮(xiǎn):指寡、孤。民:人。
    ⑻怙(hù):依靠。
    ⑼銜恤:含憂。
    ⑽鞠:養。
    ⑾拊:通“撫”。畜:通“慉”,喜愛。
    ⑿顧:顧念。復:返回,指不忍離去。
    ⒀腹:指懷抱。
    ⒁昊(hào)天:廣大的天。罔:無。極:準則。
    ⒂烈烈:通“颲颲”,山風大的樣子。
    ⒃飄風:同“飆風”。發發:讀如“撥撥”,風聲。
    ⒄谷:善。
    ⒅律律:同“烈烈”。
    ⒆弗弗:同“發發”。
    ⒇卒:終,指養老送終。
    鑒賞
      《毛詩序》說此詩“刺幽王也,民人勞苦,孝子不得終養爾”,只有最后一句是中的之言,至于“刺幽王,民人勞苦”云云,正如歐陽修所說“非詩人本意”(《詩本義》),詩人所抒發的只是不能終養父母的痛極之情。

      此詩六章,似是悼念父母的祭歌,分三層意思:首兩章是第一層,寫父母生養“我”辛苦勞累。頭兩句以比引出,詩人見蒿與蔚,卻錯當莪,于是心有所動,遂以為比。莪香美可食用,并且環根叢生,故又名抱娘蒿,喻人成材且孝順;而蒿與蔚,皆散生,蒿粗惡不可食用,蔚既不能食用又結子,故稱牡蒿,蒿、蔚喻不成材且不能盡孝。詩人有感于此,借以自責不成材又不能終養盡孝。后兩句承此思言及父母養大自己不易,費心勞力,吃盡苦頭。中間兩章是第二層,寫兒子失去雙親的痛苦和父母對兒子的深愛。第三章頭兩句以瓶喻父母,以罍喻子。因瓶從罍中汲水,瓶空是罍無儲水可汲,所以為恥,用以比喻子無以贍養父母,沒有盡到應有的孝心而感到羞恥。句中設喻是取瓶罍相資之意,非取大小之義。“鮮民”以下六句訴述失去父母后的孤身生活與感情折磨。漢樂府詩《孤兒行》說“居生不樂,不如早去從地下黃泉”,那是受到兄嫂虐待產生的想法,而此詩悲嘆孤苦伶仃,無所依傍,痛不欲生,完全是出于對父母的親情。詩人與父母相依為命,失去父母,沒有了家庭的溫暖,以至于有家好像無家。曹粹中說:“以無怙恃,故謂之鮮民。孝子出必告,反必面,今出而無所告,故銜恤。上堂人室而不見,故靡至也。”(轉引自戴震《毛詩補傳》)理解頗有參考價值。第四章前六句一一敘述父母對“我”的養育撫愛,這是把首兩章說的“劬勞”、“勞瘁”具體化。詩人一連用了生、鞠、拊、畜、長、育、顧、復、腹九個動詞和九個“我”字,語拙情真,言直意切,絮絮叨叨,不厭其煩,聲促調急,確如哭訴一般。如果借現代京劇唱詞“聲聲淚,字字血”來形容,那是最恰切不過了。這章最后兩句,詩人因不得奉養父母,報大恩于萬一,痛極而歸咎于天,責其變化無常,奪去父母生命,致使“我”欲報不能!后兩章第三層正承此而來,抒寫遭遇不幸。頭兩句詩人以眼見的南山艱危難越,耳聞的飆風呼嘯撲來起興,創造了困厄危艱、肅殺悲涼的氣氛,象征自己遭遇父母雙亡的巨痛與凄涼,也是詩人悲愴傷痛心情的外化。四個入聲字重疊:烈烈、發發、律律、弗弗,加重了哀思,讀來如嗚咽一般。后兩句是無可奈何的怨嗟。
      賦比興交替使用是此詩寫作一大特色。三種表現方法靈活運用,前后呼應,抒情起伏跌宕,回旋往復,傳達孤子哀傷情思,可謂珠落玉盤,運轉自如,藝術感染力強烈。《晉書·孝友傳》載王裒因痛父無罪處死,隱居教授,“及讀《詩》至‘哀哀父母,生我劬勞’,未嘗不三復流涕,門人受業者并廢《蓼莪》之篇”;又《齊書·高逸傳》載顧歡在天臺山授徒,因“早孤,每讀《詩》至‘哀哀父母’,輒執書慟泣,學者由是廢《蓼莪》”,類似記載尚有,不必枚舉。子女贍養父母,孝敬父母,本是中華民族的美德之一,實際也應該是人類社會的道德義務,而此詩則是以充沛情感表現這一美德最早的文學作品,對后世影響極大,不僅在詩文賦中常有引用,甚至在朝廷下的詔書中也屢屢言及。《詩經》這部典籍對民族心理、民族精神形成的影響由此可見一斑。

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