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  • 當前位置:電子課本網 > 詩句大全 > 寫景 > 黃河 > 

    白日地中出,黃河天外來。

    “白日地中出,黃河天外來。”

    ------該詩句摘自唐代詩人張蠙的《登單于臺

    邊兵春盡回,獨上單于臺。
    白日地中出,黃河天外來。
    沙翻痕似浪,風急響疑雷。
    欲向陰關度,陰關曉不開。


    鑒賞
      張蠙早年曾游塞外,寫了不少邊塞詩。單于臺,在今內蒙古自治區呼和浩特市西,相傳漢武帝曾率兵登臨此臺。這首詩,描寫邊塞光,語句渾樸,境界開闊,雖出于晚唐詩人之手,卻很有些“盛唐氣象”。
      首聯是全詩總領。“春”字和“獨”字,看似出于無心,實則十分著力。春日兵回,邊關平靜無事,乃有登臺覽物之逸興;雖曰春日,下文卻了無春色,更顯出塞外的荒涼。獨上高臺,凝思注目,突出詩人超然獨立的形象。
      “白日地中出黃河天外來。”一輪白日,躍出平地,寫它噴薄而上的動態;千里黃河,天外飛來,寫它源遠流長的形象;“白日”、“黃河”對舉,又在寥廓蒼茫之中給人以壯麗多彩的感覺。白日出于地中而非山頂,黃河來自天外而非天上,一切都落在視平線下,皆因身在高臺之上的緣故。
      頸聯繼續寫景。兩句比喻,牢牢把握住居高臨下的特點:居高,所以風急,所以風如雷響,驚心動魄;臨下,才見沙痕,才見沙似浪翻,歷歷在目。不說“如雷”而說“疑雷”,傳神地寫出詩人細辨風聲的驚喜情態。而白日、黃河、沙浪、風聲,從遠到近,自下而上,構成一幅有色彩、有動態、有音響的立體圖畫,把邊塞風光,寫得勢闊聲宏,莽莽蒼蒼之至。尤其是“白日地中出,黃河天外來”一聯,語句渾樸,境界遼闊,學盛唐而能造出新境,很為后人激賞。
      尾聯寫詩人從單于臺上向北眺望陰山,那是漢代防御匈奴的天然屏障。詩人很想到陰山那邊去看看,但見那起伏連綿的陰山,雄關似鐵,雖然天已大亮,門戶卻緊閉不開,無法通行。
      詩人分明看到橫斷前路的不可逾越的阻障,于是,激越慷慨的高吟大唱,一變而為徒喚奈何的頹唐之音。詩到晚唐,縱使歌詠壯闊雄奇的塞外風物,也難得有盛唐時代那蓬蓬勃勃的朝氣了。

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